ВЕНГРИЯ ВО ВТОРОЙ МИРОВОЙ ВОЙНЕ - Студенческий научный форум

VIII Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2016

ВЕНГРИЯ ВО ВТОРОЙ МИРОВОЙ ВОЙНЕ

Семенкова А.Д. 1
1Владимирский государственный университет Александра и Николая Григорьевича Столетовых
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1. Hungary in the Second World War

The economic crisis that followed the end of the First world war, had an enormous influence on political life in Hungary. A sharp fall in living standards has led to prepravy sentiment in society. With the appointment in 1932 to the post of Prime Minister Gyula Gambela, right Pro-German policy, official foreign policy began to focus on Germany and Italy. The new Prime Minister has achieved stability and dostrigli pre-crisis indicators in the Hungarian economy, which greatly added to the popularity of right-wing ideas in the country.

Renegotiation of the Treaty of Trianon in which Hungary lost two-thirds of the territory, became the goal pursued by the government. Miklos Horthy (Governor of the Hungarian Kingdom from 20 to 44 years of the last century) relied on the help of Nazi Germany. However, until the autumn of 1938, the Kingdom has tried to pursue an independent policy, leading negotiations with certain countries of the future Alliance. After the annexation of Austria, Prime Minister of Hungary, Bela Imredy realized that in case of conflict, to oppose Nazi Germany and the foreign policy of the country became entirely dependent on German and Italian interests. In the state were strictly racial policy against the Jews.

In 1938 and 1940 were respectively the First and Second Vienna arbitration, the entrance of which Hungary was able to regain part of their territories, excluded after the First world war. While the country took part in military conflicts, territorial acquisitions were the result of a policy of rapprochement with Germany. Kingdom received Slovakia and the Carpathian Ruthenia (First Vienna award), and half of Transylvania (Second Vienna award). In return, Hungary had supplied the Third Reich with a strategic raw material and food, becoming the second largest supplier of oil (behind only Romania).

November 20, 1940, Prime Minister PAL Teleki, under the pressure of Germany signed the Tripartite Pact, making an Alliance of the Axis countries. From this point direct Hungary's participation in military actions are only a matter of time. In December of the same year, Teleki concluded a "Treaty of eternal friendship" with Yugoslavia. However, four months later, in Yugoslavia, a coup takes place, the entrance of which is at the head of state be anti-Hitler forces. The conclusion of the Treaty of friendship between Yugoslavia and the USSR has been a decisive fact for Germany of the attack. On 6 April 1941 the Germans invaded the country. Prime Minister of Hungary, not desiring to maintain that Hitler committed suicide. The new Prime Minister Laszlo Bardoshi, with the support of the Regent Horthy and the chief of staff Henrik Werth on April 11 announced the Yugoslavia war. After successful operations in the part of Hungary ceded the region of Vojvodina and North-Western part of Slovenia.

On June 27, 1941, after provocation in the city of Kosice, Hungary declares war on the USSR, thereby engaging in the Great Patriotic war on the German side. The government expected a lightning war in the likeness of Yugoslavia. After it became apparent the protraction of the conflict, Prime Minister of Hungary Miklos Kallai begins in 1942 secret negotiations with the Allies. Hitler was well informed about the progress of these negotiations. 19 March 1944 to prevent the surrender of Germany Hungary is bringing its troops into the country. On 15 October the same year Horthy attempted to make peace with the USSR, but the Germans managed to blackmail to terminate this agreement. A special unit of the SS took hostage the son of Miklos Horthy and under threats of reprisals the Germans removed Horthy from power.

Power was transferred to the Ferenc Salashi, which resumed its repression against the Jews. December 29, 1944, Soviet troops managed to surround and begin the siege of Budapest. This operation has become one of the fiercest battles of the Second World war. After passing the capital, the German leadership decided on a strong counterattack in Hungary, but he did not bring the expected results. The Balaton operation was the last large defensive operation of the Soviet troops in the Great Patriotic war against German forces.

2. The armed forces of Hungary

In 1938, the armed forces of the Hungarian Kingdom was about 80 thousand and was divided into 7 blocks. March 1, 1940, the troops were reorganized into three armies - the First, Second and Third Hungarian Armies. They were all designed for the defense of the occupied territories and did not differ efficiency.

In addition there was the elite shock troops of the mechanized body - Mobile body or the Carpathian group (as of 1 October 1942 called "1st bronetankovyjj case"). The body was light tanks "Toldi" and the armoured cars the Hungarian production "the Chubb". The membership is about 40 thousand people. Team of the Hungarian Carpathian army group was attached to the 17th German army, which was part of army group "South". The group has achieved great success, but the Hungarian losses in equipment and men were plentiful.

The second Hungarian Army consisted of about 200 thousand people. She participated in the battle of Stalingrad. After the army ceased to exist as an independent fighting unit.

Conclusion

After the German surrender the remnants of the Hungarian troops retreated to Austria and surrendered to the allied troops. The results of the Second World war Hungary lost acquired in the years 1938-1940 the territory, both the Vienna arbitration was recognized by the Allies as a minor and revoked. The country returned to frame 1938.

During the conflict, Hungary lost about 300 thousand soldiers and 80 thousand civilians. Still more than half a million Hungarian Jews were murdered in concentration camps

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