VII Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2015


Лемм К.С. 1, Важенина В.П. 1
1Владимирский государственный университет
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

The unwritten rules if social language usage dictate a certain choice of commonly accepted expressions and politeness formulae. These rules serve as a basis for politeness strategies. Some authors roughly classify them into the strategies aimed at avoiding directness and negativity and the ways of avoiding silence.

At far the grammar aimed at politeness is concerned the English grammar of politeness includes some tense forms making requests, orders, suggestions, inquiries, offers, etc. sound less direct and more polite. Modals and Oblique Moods are also used for the purpose. The Future or Past Indefinite alongside with the Continuous forms are used instead of the Present Indefinite Tense. These are the traditional English ways of distancing from the immediate realty.

e.g. expresig suggestion:

Direct: I think you can going us.

More polite: I thought you could join us.

Continuous Tenses could be used to express parting formulae.

Direct: Are you staying wish us at Christmas?

More politic: Will you be staying with us at Christmas?

Present Continuous is preferable to Present Simple as being the least direct.

The most common formulae of politeness are the modals: could, would, might.

e.g.: expressing a request

Direct: Will you lend me your printer?

Indirect: Could/would you lend me you printer?

Verbal structures with modals are also used as set formulae for expressing opinions, desire and intention.

e.g. Would you like? I’d prefer… I’d like to… I’d say… I’d think,

would+say, call, think

a modal+ a verb of liking

would+ prefer

Conditional expressions with modals are used to express a polite inquiry, a suggestion, a piece of advice, order, etc.

e.g. I wonder…, if you might be interested in…, if I were you I’d…, it would be better if…, if you would… .

Subjunctive expressions are preferable for refusals, personal questions and recommendations.

e.g. I’d rather not…, if you don’t mind…, I’d really like to…, you’d better …, I’d sooner.

Adverbs, verbs and fillers are used to express explanation, complaints, to soften negative opinions or apologies (a little, a bit, just, somewhat, a kind of, more or less, to tend, to be inclined to feel, I sort of think)

e.g. The news shocked me (a statement)

The news somewhat shocked me (understatement).

e.g. It was out of place (statement)

It was more or less out of place (understatement).

The impact of minimizing adverbs, non-assertive words and fillers level the unwanted emotions concealing a negative attitude. It is worth noting here that “How are you?” is only treated as a “real” question among very close personal friends or family; everywhere else, the automatic, ritual response is “Tine, thanks”, “OK, thanks”, “Oh, I mustn’t grumble”, “Not bad, thank you”, or some equivalent, whatever your physical or mental state. If you are terminally ill, it is acceptable to say “Not bad, considering”.

The strategy of overstatement through intensification is used to express gratitude, sympathy, praise, apology, refusing, complimenting, inquiry.

e.g. Sorry but… (statement)

I’m extremely/awfully sorry that (understatement)

Some degree words (just, really, completely) or stylistically coloured words ( love, hate, die) or adjectives (super, great, smashing, horrible, awful, stupid) could be regarded as intensifiers when they lose their meaning and there function is to exaggerate.

One more strategy of British politeness is the keep – the – conversation going technique. The function in answering is accepting, agreeing or disagreeing, explaining, apologetic refusal, negative opinion. Short, laconic answers should be expanded by the use of different ways of emphasing and softening

e.g. So you’re going to be late again?

Direct – Yes

Indirect – Yes, I’m afraid so…

I’m sorry, but…

Просмотров работы: 756