A PROFESSIONAL TRAINING FOR THE UNIFORM POWER SYSTEM OF RUSSIA - Студенческий научный форум

VII Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2015

A PROFESSIONAL TRAINING FOR THE UNIFORM POWER SYSTEM OF RUSSIA

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The main aim of creation and development of the Uniform power system of Russia consists in maintenance of a reliable and economic electrical supply of consumers in territory of Russia with the greatest possible realisation of advantages of parallel work of power supply systems.

The uniform power system of Russia is a part of large power association which is the integrated power grid (EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY) of the former USSR including also power supply systems of the independent states: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Ukraine and Estonia. From EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY power supply systems of seven countries of east Europe are Bulgaria, Hungary, East part of Germany, Poland, Romania, Czechia and Slovakia continue to work synchronously.

As a part of the integrated power grid of Russia in parallel 6 incorporated power systems (UES) of Russia now work: the Center, Average Volga, Ural Mountains, the Northwest of Russia, the North Caucasus, and Siberia into which there are 65 power supply systems enter. The East UES works now it is isolated from EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY.

The power stations entering into EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY is developed more than 90 %

The electric power made in the independent states which were Republics of the USSR. Association of power supply systems in EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY allows providing decrease in the necessary total established capacity.

Power stations at the expense of combination of maxima of loading of the power supply systems have difference of zone time and difference in schedules.

To reduce demanded reserve capacity on power stations and to carry out the most rational use of main primary power resources take into account a changing fuel conjuncture. To reduce the price of power building and to improve an ecological situation is very important.

The general economic efficiency of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY creation in comparison with the isolated work of power supply systems is estimated by decrease in capital investments in electric power industry on size over 2 billion rubles in the prices of 1984 and reduction of annual working costs by size of the order of 1 billion rubles .The total amount in decrease in the total established capacity of power stations of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY is estimated by size of the order of 15 million in kw.

Last years a number of negative tendencies in EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY development took place: default of tasks on input of generating capacities, practical absence of building of many power stations in the European part of the country, primary building of large HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS and limited building of WARM ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS in Siberia, insufficient development of electric networks and means of regulation by electric power streams in them, formation of the stream of the electric power from the West to the east towards to fuel transport.

Disintegration of the former USSR on the independent states has aggravated the situation which has developed in last years in EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY and in electric power industry as a whole. For the first time for many years in 1991 in power supply systems of the former USSR and EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY has not increased, and the established capacity of power stations has decreased, development and current consumption has decreased. The indicators characterising quality of maintenance of frequency which have been improved in the last some years have decreased. The annual maximum of loading in 1991 is passed in EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY at frequency of 49,63 Hz, the autumn-winter period is at frequency of 49,48 Hz. Operation time of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY with frequency out of admissible State Standard of a range in 1991 has made almost 500 hours. Economic indicators of work of power supply systems have worsened: electric power losses in electric networks and also specific fuel consumption on WARM ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS have increased. The number of restrictions and switching-off of the consumers entered on commands of the dispatching personnel has increased.

Position is aggravated with that the volume of the obsolete equipment of the power stations which have fulfilled the resource sharply increases in electric power industry. The basic part of the equipment of the power stations operating now will fulfil the resource to 2005-2010. At the same time a reinvestment cycle in building of large power stations from the moment of decision-making before the termination of the building, as a rule, exceeds 10 years. Deficiency of the electric power can be aggravated still if the requirement of a part of the public (including the western countries) about a conclusion from operation of power units of the atomic power station with reactors of type RBMK (the Reactor of Big Power Canals) in connection with their insufficient reliability and safety is not satisfied.

In these conditions the success of economic reforms in the independent states, the further functioning of national economy and security of the population in many respects depends on correctness of decision-making on the further development of electric power industry thermal and electric energy which cannot be bought and delivered from abroad in essential volume. The exchange of the electric power with the European countries, making last years no more than 2 % from total amount of its development, cannot essentially affect total balance of the electric power.

Considering a special role of electric power industry in economy and social development independent, the states which are the former republics of the USSR, and realizing advantages parallel works power plants and electric power pools, the government of Republic Azerbaijan, Republic Armenia, Byelorussia, Republic Kazakhstan, Republic Kyrgyzstan, Republic Moldova, the Russian Federation, Republic Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Republic Uzbekistan and Ukraine have concluded on February, 14th, 1992 the agreement on creation of Electropower Council of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the purpose of carrying out of the joint and co-ordinated actions directed on maintenance of steady and reliable power supply of national economy and the population of these states on the basis of effective functioning of incorporated power systems with working body the Executive committee.

In the conditions of market relations, increasing political, administrative and economic independence of regions in the states the EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY role as bases of economically mutually advantageous exchange of the electric power and rationalisation of expenses of primary power resources, increase of reliability of power supply of consumers in normal and emergency operation increases. However the further development of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY and its control system should be adapted for new economic and political conditions in the independent states.

EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY management was carried out by means of created many long years and effective in old conditions of hierarchical system of dispatching management. In territorial aspect the basic top steps of this system are the power supply systems; below these steps of hierarchy there are points of an operational administration power stations, the enterprises of electric networks and areas of electric networks. The basic time levels are long-term planning, short-term planning, an operational administration, automatic control.

The general principle of planning and management of modes was submission of each step and time level of management of higher step and to level with wide use of a principle of optimality. According to this principle, developed at each step and level of management of the decision are defined by requirements of optimisation of a mode with use of equivalent characteristics of parts of the EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY corresponding to lower steps and levels of management. The received tasks are fulfilled in the optimum image on each of lower steps and each level with specification and detailed elaboration on the basis of use of fuller models of parts of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY operated at these levels. Thus at the bottom steps and management levels equivalent characteristics of parts of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY for the higher steps of management should prepare.

For realisation of the purposes of management of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY was the automated control system on the basis of application of digital computer facilities and modern communication facilities is created.

The EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY and its control system developed as the state all-union centralised structure though operatively-dispatching function and have been directly separated from the economic. Coordination of these functions was carried out by the former Ministry for the Power Generating Industry of the USSR.

For the Integrated power grid of Russia and its control system essential value will be had by the decisions made by State structures on transformation of patterns of ownership to electric power industry of Russia, namely: creation at federal level of the Russian Joint-stock company (Russian Open Society) of power and electrification of " Russian UES " on the basis of large power stations (a state district power station capacity 1000 МVT and above, hydroelectric power stations capacity more than 300 МVT) and the main, intersystem and interstate electric mains forming the Integrated power grid of Russia, and also regional joint-stock companies on the basis of regional power supply systems.

The basic problem of the further development of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY and its control system consists in the most rational synthesis of principles of planning and EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY management as completely centralised system and principles of planning and the management, existing in the foreign power associations covering the countries with different pattern of ownership in electric power industry.

According to these principles the electric power systems entering into EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY, should:

- agree about an overall aim of teamwork of power supply systems (for example to minimise expenses on manufacture and electric power transport at maintenance of demanded level of reliability of an electrical supply of consumers);

- provide the information interchange, an overall aim necessary for achievement;

- agree about the general criteria of reliability;

- divide benefits from teamwork by fair image.

Coordination of teamwork of power supply systems should mention various levels of management: optimisation of capital investments in development of generating capacities and electric networks, planning of repairs, an optimum choice of structure of units, economic distribution of loading, frequency regulation.

Coordination of planning of development of generating capacities should provide:

- planning of all generating capacities, including quantity, the sizes, types and the arrangement of generating sources;

- coordination of the plans developed by each power supply system, for maintenance of reliability of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY.

Coordination of planning of electric networks should concern development both internal, and intersystem communications.

Coordination of operative work should provide:

- economic distribution of capacities between power stations;

- optimum input of units;

- optimum planning of repairs;

- establishment of the general criteria of reliability;

- automatic control of frequency;

- help in generation, including in rotating reserve.

Rules of distribution of the benefits received from teamwork of power supply systems as a part of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY, as a result of reduction of cost of the electric power and reliability increase should be defined also.

The most rational principles of coordination and competition of various proprietors of the power objects, providing depreciation of the electric power and increase of reliability of an electrical supply of consumers, should be developed and installed, as on interstate, and federal and regional levels.

Now mutual relations of the Integrated power grid of Russia and power supply systems of the independent states are under construction according to the bilaterial and multilateral contracts which are entered into on the basis of the agreement on uniform principles of parallel work of power supply systems of the independent states, the Cooperation of National States signed by representatives.

The cores from these principles are:

- parallel work of power supply systems of the Cooperation of National States is carried out on the basis of the state sovereignty and the sovereign rights to power objects and resources, equality, mutual trust, benefit, mutual aid and non-interference to questions of internal management by power supply systems;

- each power supply system is a part of electric power units of the Cooperation of National States on a voluntary basis and bears full responsibility for an electrical supply of the consumers. It should cover loading of the consumers with own means taking into account the concluded contracts on capacity and electric power deliveries;

- any power supply system should not cause the actions of damage to electrosystems of other states;

- all power supply systems should provide transit of electric energy through the networks;

- power supply systems are obliged by all means available at their order to promote the prompt exit from emergencies and after accident situations;

- planning of rates of parallel work is carried out on the basis of the concluded bilaterial and multilateral contracts and agreements on deliveries and electric power and capacity transit;

- maintenance of level of frequency in an admissible range is carried out by regulation by each power supply system of the co-ordinated balance of the overflow of capacity with correction on frequency;

- each power supply system should have the co-ordinated size of a reserve of the capacity used for emergency mutual aid and maintenance of frequency.

The further development of principles and rules of teamwork of power supply systems as a part of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY should be directed to increase of efficiency of the electrical supply of the consumers, consisting in reduction of cost of the electric power and increase of reliability of their electrical supply.

The basic primary power resources for the further development of generating capacities in the integrated power grid of Russia are resources of the Western-Siberian oil and gas complex, coals of east regions: Kansko-Achinsk and Kuznetsk, Timano-Pechora reaches, hydro resources of Siberia, nuclear fuel, and also local kinds of fuel.

Basis of development of electric power industry on prospect should make ecologically "pure" thermal power stations, the hydroelectric power stations constructed with the minimum zones of flooding, and after creation of reactors of the guaranteed safety atomic power stations. Wide application can find in future power station on the basis of Technical Universities, and also HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION of small capacity. The structure of generating capacities should provide the necessary many variability, demanded levels of reliability and possibility of realisation of economic interregional exchanges with the electric power.

The key problem defining placing and development of Power stations and the main backbone communications of the integrated power grid of Russia on prospect, the choice of an optimum parity between volumes of primary power resources and the electric power, transported of east areas in western is the decision of this problem should be carried out taking into account maintenance of necessary level of reliability of power supply and survivability of the integrated power grid of Russia and should define degree and schemes of development of transport electricity transmissions of high and the highest pressure, development for needs of electric power industry of railway and pipeline transport.

At the decision of a question on a choice of way of transport of energy carriers from east areas it is necessary to consider following basic technical and economic factors.

Electric power transport on transmission lines of ultrahigh pressure and coal transportation by rail from these areas in the European part of Russian Federation and to Ural Mountains approximately are equal economically.

Use simultaneously electronic and railway transportation with a construction of power stations in places of consumption of energy will raise reliability of power supply of the western areas, equation of scarce power supply systems on fuel, reliability and survivability of the integrated power grid of Russia as a whole.

Dispersal of thermal power stations on coals of east deposits on territory of the Russian Federation will allow softening essentially ecological intensity in regions of Atomic Power stations.

Simultaneously it is necessary to mean that transportation Kansko-Achinsk coals to the Far East is the most real solution of the problem of fuel supply of power stations of this region and will allow to raise efficiency of use of fuel supply of Baikal-Amur trunk-railway.

From the point of view of stability and survivability and new social and political conditions the integrated power grid of Russia is expedient for developing on a principle of self-balancing of separate regions on energy and capacity, supposing a withdrawal from this principle at the deep feasibility report, considering, in particular, non-uniform placing on territories of Russia of primary power resources and the basic consumers of the energy, available possibilities of transportation of fuel, interdictions for building of large power objects, first of all the atomic power station, presence of strong environmental contamination in separate regions.

The dominant role of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY and Integrated power grid of Russia will consist in mutual reservation of power supply systems and power associations in normal and emergency operation, realisation of a favourable exchange by the electric power and rational regulation of the expense of primary power resources taking into account a developing fuel conjuncture, indemnification of deviations of the valid loadings and generation from the predicted.

The power companies of the independent states, and also the power companies of separate regions in the states should bear responsibility for power supply of consumers, participate in financing of building of power objects, solve questions of satisfaction of the requirements for base and peak capacity, provide a necessary reserve of generating capacity and its rational placing, and also placing of sources of jet capacity and pressure regulation, to develop programs and schemes of development of electric power industry, modernisation and reconstruction of power stations and networks, to solve questions of a choice of new platforms for building of power stations and their fuel supply, to participate in a choice of backbone communications, to co-ordinate the decision of the specified questions with the power companies of other states and regions in the states, local authorities, the ministries of power, Executive committee of Electropower Council of the Commonwealth of Independent States and other interested organisations. Local authorities should divide responsibility for electro- and heat supply of consumers at the decision of questions of placing of objects of electric power industry in the territory.

Decrease in capital investments and annual operational expenses for all states and regions in the states from integration of their power supply systems into EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY at maintenance of demanded level of reliability of power supply of consumers should be the basic criterion defining development of electric communications in power associations, interstate and inter-regional electricity transmissions. The requirement of a non-admission of infringement of an electrical supply of consumers at refusal of any element of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY, and in a number of responsible cases and at refusal of two and more elements should become criterion of reliability in the long term.

Repeatedly closed electric networks providing reliability of schemes of delivery of capacity of power stations and an electrical supply of large knots of loading and cities should develop. Schemes of delivery of capacity of nuclear and large thermal power stations should suppose possibility of switching-off of any of departing electric circuits without necessity of decrease in capacity of power stations.

The separate states and regions should communicate electric circuits so that switching-off of one of lines, as a rule, did not lead to infringement of stability of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY and action anti accident automatics which are disconnecting consumers of the electric power. The same requirement concerns to transmission lines in region.

The scheme of an electric network of the Integrated power grid of Russia and EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY should possess the sufficient flexibility, allowing to carry out its stage-by-stage development and simply enough to adapt to change of conditions of growth of loadings and developments of power stations, and also to change of directions of streams of capacity.

Between power supply systems and power associations of the independent states it is represented to a transmission line expedient to make in future the joint property of the power companies of the states on which territory they pass, with equal (or proportional extent) responsibility share in maintenance of functioning of these lines and the same share in distribution of benefit from their operation.

Expediently in future to consider questions of further development of backbone communications the United Electrical System of Kazakhstan and the Integrated power grid of Russia, taking into account possible joining the United Electrical System of Central Asia to EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY, and also the construction of intersystem communications the United Electrical System of East with the Integrated power grid of Russia.

Application of electric circuits and direct current inserts can be considered in the long term for use in intersystem communications of the Integrated power grid of Russia with foreign (first of all, European) countries, and also in the Integrated power grid of Russia for transport on these lines of the big streams of the electric power on a long distance and for creation of operated elements in ring networks of the alternating current.

Development of methods and means of operatively-dispatching management of the EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY corresponding to complexity of object of management and new working conditions of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY is necessary. EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY management should be under construction on the basis of the new computing and information technics. Development of communication channels and creation of the uniform information network, maintenance of complex automation of all process of manufacture and distribution of the electric power taking into account last scientific and technical achievements and foreign experience is required.

The automated systems of regulation of current consumption in a combination to the automated system of dispatching management of modes, systems of localisation of severe accidents and the fastest restoration of the normal mode of functioning of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY should be developed. The volume of anti accident the management leading to switching-off of consumers in power supply systems, should be extremely limited and economically proved.

It is necessary connection of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY and control system development by its modes as two parts of the single whole.

For successful work of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY as uniform power complex management perfection by its development and functioning taking into account new social and political conditions of development of the independent states is required. Planning of development of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY should consider as interests of the separate states, regional interests, and interests of development of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY as a whole. Preservation of system of long-term, intermediate term and short-term forecasts of development of electric power industry of the independent states and EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY is expedient. The primary goal of drawing up of forecasts of development of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY is optimum coordination of programs of development of the electric power industry, developed by the independent states and regions. Work in prospect of development of the Integrated power grid of Russia and EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY in new conditions will demand the account of great volume of the additional information, perfection of methods of its processing and working out of new methodology of forecasting for near and far prospect.

As a whole, the big complex work of representatives of the states, power supply systems which power associations function as a part of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY, in working out of principles of planning of its development and principles of parallel work of electric power regions in new social and political conditions for maintenance of depreciation of the electric power and increase of reliability of the electrical supply of consumers is required.

This work should be done by the integrated power grid of Russia and the Russian Open Society "United Power Systems". Professionals solve all. The system of the professional training for power system begins in Krasnodar technical college.

According to the spent scientific researches in Krasnodar Technical College the Resource power centre for training of students of branch «Automation and service» and the further professional perfection of the skill on the specialty 140448 «Technical operation and service of the electric and electromechanical equipment on branches» has been opened.

Every year in college there pass the Olympic Games for the electrical technicians and future engineers. Students solve simple and difficult tasks for it. For example:

1. Calculation of a multiplanimetric electric chain of a direct current with several power supplies an optimum method.

2. Calculation of a difficult electric chain of a direct current with one power supply.

3. Creation of mathematical model of an electric chain on the computer and its calculation.

4. Assemblage of an electric chain.

Results were counted up on points both by quantity of attempts and by quantity of spent time for decisions of professional tasks.

Let's see the results of efficiency of students’ professional knowledge of power specialty in the table 1.

The Table 1 – Correlation of professional competence, professional readiness, mobility, personal professional skill and interpersonal relations of students

Criteria of professional components

K-before

K-after

Difference

E-before

E-after

Difference

Total amount

Professional competence of middle level

76,9

76,9

0

90,9

100

9,1

9,1

Professional competence of high level

84,6

84,6

0

90,9

100

9,1

9,1

Personal professional skill

13,5

12,3

-1,2

8,5

4,6

-3,9

-5,1

Skills to work in team (interpersonal relations of students )

4

4

0

1,5

1

-0,5

-0,5

Level of professional readiness

             

-low

-7

-6

-13

-6

-5

-11

-24

-middle

-1,5

-1,4

-2,9

-0,9

0

-0,9

-3,8

-high

-3,5

-2,5

-6

-0,5

-0,2

-0,7

-6,7

middle mobility

-649

-272

-921

-499

-23

-522

-1443

high mobility

-408

-73

-481

-265

-29

-294

-775

So, pedagogical experiment spent within 2011-2015 has shown that during Olympic Games carrying out on discipline of "Electrical technique" in control group there were 13 students, and in experimental group 11 there were students. Students of department «Automation and service» with the preparation of middle level had been chosen. Professional competence at students of the experimental group by the experiment end under the received measuring results (the decision of problems of different complexity in Energetic) has increased by 9, 1 % while in the control group it was not observed by the end of the experiment. In this connection readiness level to be the professional in the branch of work ( solving of difficult professional problems at the discipline of "Electrical technique " from the first time) in experimental group had increased knowledge in Energetic in comparison with the control group by 6,7%, mobility of students of the experimental group in comparison with the control group had increased in solving of difficult professional problems for 775 seconds from the norm (400 seconds for 1 task), personal professional skill trained on 5 points in the experimental group in comparison with the control group had improved and skills to work in team had increased in the command at professional problems at 0,5 (in places) in the experimental group. At the same time in the control group mobility had improved in few (for 481 seconds), professional readiness to be professional still strongly lowed behind the ideal variant (at the 6th time solving difficult professional problems), skills to work in a team had not improved (it was the same the 4th command place), and personal professional skill had increased only at 1point (place).

So, the pedagogical experiment has shown that only at the personal-situational approach in teaching subjects professional-labor socialization of students is increasing in educational process, their readiness to be the professionals in the branch of work raises too, love to the chosen specialty is up, their skills in labor develops in profession.

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