ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ПРОЕКТНОЙ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В ОБУЧЕНИИ АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ - Студенческий научный форум

IV Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2012

ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ПРОЕКТНОЙ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В ОБУЧЕНИИ АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

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The theme of my course work is "Using of project technology in English teaching".

My course work consists of four parts.

Introduction.

In this part I wrote about up to date methods of teaching English at schools. And I also showed general notes on term project and project technology.

The main part of this course work is about types and principals of project technology and its advantages, disadvantages. Some types of work as project lessons are written in this part.

The third part is called Practical part. In this part are given the plans of the topical project works for developing all language skills.

The last part is Concluding part. There I showed the importance of using project technology in teaching at the English lessons.

Before writing the course work I read many newspapers, magazines and works of some scientists. Project technology is one of the most important and up to date technologies. Having written the course work and having read many scientific works I got to know the importance of project technology in teaching English at school.

One of the peculiarities of project technology in the tasks of solving the given problem foresees using scientific and searching methods.

Realizations of project of technology are provided of three stages:

  • 1. Preparatory
  • 2. The main
  • 3. Concluding

Project method is very effective, because:

  • 1) Themes and tasks for project learning derived from all forms and objects of live.
  • 2) Make learning easier and comprehensive

Having written this course work I found that project technology is one of the most important technologies in English teaching at school.

 

 

I. Introduction.

1.1. Using up to date methods and ways of teaching English.

Foreign language acquisition is a subject of research in didactics, development of didactical media, teaching processes and learning procedures in target language (methods and techniques) and in the psychological acquisition mechanisms.

It is very important to define at once differences between teaching a foreign language and a second language. Traditionally teaching of a foreign language means teaching not a native language: in some cases it is understood as teaching immigrants and their children of the language of the country they live in, in other cases this denotes teaching of a second state language which is the language of national communication.

Second language teaching always aimed at integration of cultural values within a define country and while meaning the educational context it is an intercultural element of the personality´s education and socialization. Foreign language teaching is always connected with intercultural education, teaching of the language of international communication or the language of a neighboring country and it also means the absence of natural language environment.

Very often the language atmosphere has an artificially modeled character and is limited by the walls of the classroom where the teacher creates language environment. Foreign language teaching is always aimed at integration of cultural values of other countries and its people while meaning the educational context it is an intercultural element of the personality´s education and socialization. Contents, methods and techniques of second language and foreign language teaching differentiate from each other while having much in common the process of foreign language acquisition is connected with perception, encoding, recoding and decoding of information, with the development of semantics on the base of senso-motorical intelligence. It is connected with the development of the articulation motorics, auto-motorics, with the development of memory processing (autobiographical memory, declarative - general knowledge and facts - memory, procedure memory and priming memory), with the processes of speech production from an intention of communicative act to speech acts.

Age peculiarities and differences in foreign language acquisitions and learning are related to age peculiarities of the personality´s psychophisiological, mental, cognitive, social and native language development. In general age peculiarities in foreign language acquisition are connected more with age peculiarities of the development of basic language abilities, personality´s verbal intelligence and age peculiarities of memory and peculiarities of age learning abilities.

Analysis of children´s teaching in pre-school period shows that in school conditions and adult students it is possible to point out concrete age periods in person´s life which can be defined as the most sensitive for the learning initial stage. During these age periods personality is mostly prepared to language acquisition, making up its own rules, forming inner grammar system and practical usage of the knowledge received.

Foreign language education stimulates the communicative competence development, as well as development of the native speech and language development of the child. It offers very effective supplementary means also for the emotional, cognitive and intellectual development of the personality of the pre-school child. While fulfilling the cross-cultural research programs the researchers & apos; supposition has been that the communicative competence and communicative development are integral phenomena of cultural - historical development of an individual since his or her birth.

When teaching foreign languages, in preschool and school age an attempt was made to point out groups of children and pupils who differed from each other by individually - typical features of foreign language acquisition. According to qualitative and qualitative criteria the children can be divided into for groups on the bases of the success on the foreign language acquisition:

  • a) communicative active children
  • b) communicative reactive children
  • c) communicatively initiated children
  • d) communicatively passive children

It is very important to pay attention to the development and formation of each of the semantic constructs in child´s representation system while teaching second of foreign language. This concept is very actual and important in teaching both second and foreign languages on the next age stages of the personality´s life long development. Individual differences in foreign language acquisition in preschool age are connected with:

  • 1) the level and qualitative characteristics of communicative competence in the native language and the child´s communicative activity experienced within the family and out of it;
  • 2) degree of the communicative initiatives of the child;
  • 3) the development of the degree of the native language;
  • 4) individual characteristics of foreign language information input;
  • 5) individual characteristics of latent periods ( time) of language acquisition ;
  • 6) qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sort term
  • 7) individual characteristics of foreign language information output.

Research of age individual and group differences in foreign language acquisition is very up to date and important either for working out age oriented language teaching programs, methods, teaching devices, or for organizing effective and resulting foreign language teaching.

Analysis of theoretical and experimental date lets come to the conclusion, that the beginning of teaching foreign language at prepubertal period gives the most effective result, the following continuation of language learning lets acquire it on the level approximated to the native speakers level. If at pre-pubertal stage of personality´s development one can use definite forms and teaching methods and techniques but at pubertal or post pubertal stage these forms and methods must be different.

While foreign language teaching children with language disorders, one treat the language as additional means of correction influence on children´s language ability development applied to their native language. In the pre-school childhood period it is possible to point out several sensitive age periods in forming practical abilities and semantics of the native language and the learned language as well.

1.2. General notes on project technology.

Project work lets us extend learning time and gets pupils doing something original and worthwhile in English. Even introvert pupils enjoy tackling a project. A project is an in-depth study of a topic of interest to the individual pupils. They collect all the information and data themselves and build up a document of some sort - usually with text, diagrams and pictures, but perhaps supported by a poster, a brochure, realia or even a cassette recording. An entire term could be allowed for completion. All the research and writing is done in free periods or at home. It is best to let pupils choose their own projects: fashions, sport, recipes, a historical period, a region of a different country, a city, the life of a favourite member of a rock group, etc.

When a project is complete, the pupil (or pair) is encouraged to make a short presentation to the others. They will make and use any needed visuals for this, acting as teacher for a while. The rest of the class, not having worked on that particular project, will be interested by what is said. Project folders can be taken in and marked, as part of your ongoing assessment. They make ideal display materials for any open evening, when parents are invited into the school to meet subject teachers.

The diversity of language learners in diverse contexts needs task that should be fashioned for a particular group, studying in a particular place with its own particular opportunities and challenges. There is no one method which will be suitable for everyone. The teacher should be inspired to change and to experiment. But he may be limited by a number of institutional factors. Among these may be regulations which demand a certain curriculum content, budgetary constraints which will dictate class size and numbers of hours, an old - fashioned text book or some others. An inexperienced teacher has to overcome this.

The teacher must be sure that the content and the activities he chooses are relevant to the goals of the learners. This means that he should be as familiar as possible with what the learners do and how they do it.

The role of the learner has been examined and six learning styles have been identified:

  • Visual learners
  • Tactile learners
  • Kinesthetic learners
  • Auditory learners
  • Individual learners
  • Group learners

The teacher can not plan the lessons and the techniques he will use without analyzing such factors as the age of the learners, their language level, and their cultural background, their motivation, their learning styles, the character of the group itself, the syllabus, the course book. The group´s expectations and previous learning experience, any socio-political factors.

ESP programs focus on developing communicative competence in a specific field such as business or technology. ESP courses have a common purpose: to increase pupils´ skills and confidence in using English. The words and sentences learned, the subject matter discussed, all relate to are particular field or discipline. The courses mark use of vocabulary and tasks related to the field such as negotiation skills and effective techniques for oral presentations.

The present study focuses on the problem specific for ESP teachers at schools. The problem is how to build the bridge that would help to eliminate the psychological gap between teaching oral communicative skills for everyday life that greatly inspires our pupils ‘ interest and teaching skills in technical reading, and professionally-oriented communication in the field that is usually considered by our pupils.

To solve this problem and teach professional speaking, writing, reading and listening within an integrated skills approach we have introduced project work into our syllabus. The project work methodology can be defined as an integrated pedagogical and language activity that successfully combines simultaneous, role-plays and various forms of discussion.

II. The main part.

2.1. The types and principals of technology and its advantages, disadvantages.

Why have we chosen project work methodology among many innovative teaching technologies and approaches?

  • 1. Project work is appropriate to all levels of knowledge and provides the compete solution of the problem of authenticity of task for pupils.
  • 2. Project works gives pupils the opportunity to choose the methods and approach, to decide the project schedule, etc. It is pupils´ - centered activity.
  • 3. Project work provides high level of motivation because the pupils are offered the opportunity of using the language skill already acquired in a real professionally - oriented communicative situation.
  • 4. The most important in that project work provides the simultaneous development of four integrated skills: speaking, writing, listening and reading.
  • 5. Project work is a cooperative rather than a competitive activity.
  • 6. This activity allows both teacher and pupils to concentrate on the communicative use of language and content rather than form.

Project work can not only promote the growth of positive motivation, but also offer the following advantages to the pupils.

  • - it allows the pupils to proceed at their own rate;
  • - it allows the pupils to choose their own learning mode;
  • - it allows the pupils to identify their strengths and weaknesses.

Project work is not the easiest methods to implement. It requires a lot of preparatory work on the teacher´s part and multiple stages of development to succeed. But its payoffs are beneficial for pupils and teachers alike.

The advantages of using project work methodology in teaching and learning English have been experimentally proved.

2.2. Using of project technology in English teaching at the lessons.

2.2 a) Pair work at Project Lessons.

Organizing pupils into pairs is an important job for the teacher at the project lesson. In pair work pupils can practice the language together, study a text, research the language or take part in information -gap activities. They can write dialogues, predict the content of reading texts, or compare on what they have listened to or seen.

The most important advantages and disadvantages of using pair work at project lessons saw S. Haines (1995).

So, the positive sides are:

  • ü It dramatically increases the amount of speaking time any one pupil gets in the class.
  • ü It allows pupils to work and interact independently without the necessary guidance of the teacher, thus promoting learner independence.
  • ü It allows teachers time to work with one or two pairs while the other pupils continue working.
  • ü It recognizes the old maxim that "two heads are better than one", and in promoting cooperation helps the classroom to become a more relaxed and friendly place. If teachers get pupils to make decisions in pairs, they will be allowed to share responsibility rather than having to bear the whole weight themselves.
  • ü It is relatively quick and easy to organize.

There are disadvantages of pair work:

Pair work is frequently very noisy and some teachers and pupils dislike this. Teachers in particular worry that they will lose control of their class.

Pupils in pairs can often veer away from the point of an exercise, talking about something else completely, often in their first language.

 

2.2. b) Group work at project lessons.

It is also possible to put pupils in large groups too, since this will allow them to do a range of task for which pair work is not sufficient or appropriate. Thus, pupils can write a group story or role-play a situation which involves five or six people. They can prepare a presentation or discuss an issue and come to a group decision. Pupils can watch, write or perform a video sequence; teachers can give individual pupils in group different lines of a poem which the group has to reassemble.

In general it is possible to say that small groups of around five pupils provoke greater involvement and participation than large groups. They are small enough for real interpersonal interaction, yet not so small that members are over - reliant upon each individual. Because five is an add number, it means that a majority view can usually prevail. However, there are occasions when large groups are necessary. The activity mats demand it, or we mat want to divide the class into teams for same game or preparation phase.

Advantages and disadvantages of using group-work at project lessons are nicely described by J. Reid (1987) and T. Woodward (1995) in their works. The main advantages are:

  • - Unlike pair work, because there are more than two people in the group, personal relationships are usually less problematic; there is also a greater chance of different opinions and varied contribution than pair work, and yet is more privative than work in front of the whole class.

It promotes learner autonomy by allowing pupils to make their own decisions in the group without being told what to do by the teacher.

  • - Like pair work, it dramatically increases the amount for individual pupils.

There definite disadvantages, too:

  • - It is likely to be noisy. Some teachers feel that they lose control, and the whole class feeling which has been painstakingly built up may dissipate when the class is spilt into smaller entitles. Groups can take longer to organize than pairs.
  • - In conclusion it should be mentioned that project work is topical-based which involves research/ questionnaires project encourage cooperation and sharing, it may be very creative artwork.

While project work it is possible to use such forms of class organization as pair and group work. It helps for developing all language skills at the project lessons.

•2.2 c) Using project works for developing all language skills.

Generally teaching aims in foreign languages methodologists tend to divide into some parts - structures, functions, vocabulary, pronunciation and skills.

There are three skills teachers are supposed to master in learning a new language:

  • - They must learn to read it;
  • - They should learn to understand it when they hear it;
  • - They should learn to speak it.

Most modern school curricula require all subjects to encourage initiative, independence, self-discipline, imagination, development of all language skills, so the project work is way of turning such general aims into practical classroom activity and involve children into teaching process.

Project provides a natural context in which these separate parts can be reintegrated in learners´ minds. This is important for pupils to be sure about their own abilities to use target language in real situations. It is pupil´s own interests to produce language that is accurate and fluent.

Teachers and pupils encourage that projects break the routine. Project work demands creature and a lot of enthusiasm for both-teachers and learners.

Project work is very effective method, because:

  • - themes and target tasks for project learning derived from all forms and objects of life;
  • - learners are involved with the ideas through a process of discussion, experimentation, reflection, and application of insights to the new stages of experimentation.

For planning the structure of project work pupils and teacher make sure about every pupil´s responsibilities. During the project pupils practice in main language skills - listening, speaking, reading and writing.

 

2.2. d) Developing reading and listening skills.

Reading and listening are receptive skills.

Reading is not passive skill. It is an incredibly active occupation. To do it successfully, we have to understand what the words mean, see the picture, the words are painting, understand the arguments and out of we agree with them.

When we read a text in our own language, we frequently have a good idea of the content before we actually read. Book covers give us a hint of what is in the book, photographs and headline hint at what articles are about and reports look like reports before we read a single word. Teachers should give pupils "hints" so that they can predict what is coming too. It will make them better and more engaged readers.

There are many reasons why getting pupils to read English texts which is an important part of the teacher´s job. In the first place, many of them want to be able to read texts in English either for their careers, for study purposes or simply for pleasure.

A balance has to be struck between real English on one hand and the pupils´ capabilities and interest on the other. There is some authentic written material which beginner pupils can understand to some degree:

Menus, timetables, sings and basic instructions, for example, and where appropriate, can be used in project work. But for longer prose, teachers may want to offer their pupils texts which, while being like English, are nevertheless written or adapted especially for their level. The important thing is that such texts are as much like real English as possible.

Listening is a skill and any help pupils can be offered, in performing that skill will help them be better listeners. Listening to tapes is a way of brining different kinds of speaking into the classroom, it is possible to play different kinds of tape to them, e.g. conversation, "play", interviews, stories read aloud, telephone exchanges etc.

One of the main reasons for getting pupils to spoken English is to let them hear different varieties and accents - rather than just the voice of their teacher with its own idiosyncrasies. In today´s world, they need to be exposed not only to one variety of English (British English for example) but also to varieties such as American English, Australian English, Indian English or West African English.

The debate about use of authentic listening material is just as fierce in listening as it is in reading. If, for example, teachers play a tape of a political speech to complete beginners, they will not understand a word. If, on the other hand pupils are given a realistic (though not authentic) tape of a telephone conversation, they may learn to gain confidence as a result. Everything depends on level, and the kind of tasks that go with a tape.

There may be some authentic material which is usable by beginners´ such as pre-recorded announcements, telephone messages, etc.

There are numbers of ways in which listening activities differ forms otter classroom exercises: firstly, tapes go at the same special for everybody.

Listening is special, too, because spoken language, especially when it is informal, has a number of unique features including the use of incomplete utterances, repetitions, hesitation, etc. experience of informal spoken English together with an appreciation of other spoken factors - the tone of the voice, the intonation the speakers use, rhythm, and background noise - will help pupils tease meaning out of such speech phenomena.

e) Developing speaking and writing.

Speaking and writing are the productive skills. Production processes control how well the child can reproduce the model´s responses.

There are three basic reasons why it is good idea to give pupil speaking tasks which provoke them to use all and any language at their command:

  • 1. Rehearsal: getting pupils to have a free discussion gives them a chance to rehearse having discussion in project work.
  • 2. Feedback: speaking tasks where pupils are trying to use all and any language they know provides feedback for both teacher and pupils. Teacher can see how well their class is doing and what language problems they are having (that is a good reason for project lessons); pupils can also see how easy they find a particular kind of speaking and what they need to improve.
  • 3. Engagement: good speaking activities can and should be highly motivating. Many speaking task (role-playing, discussion, problem solving) can be used in the project work.

There are four type of speaking activity:

  • Information-gap
  • Survey
  • Discussion
  • Role-play

One popular information-gap activity is called "Describe and Draw". It has many of the elements of an ideal speaking activity.

One way to provoking conversation and opinion exchange is to get pupils to conduct questionnaires themselves, the activity becomes even more useful.

Role-play activities are those where pupils are asked to imagine to that they are in different situation and act accordingly. Teachers can organize discussion sessions in their classroom, too.

Writing is a basic language skill, just as important as speaking, listening, and reading. Pupils need to know to write letters, how to put written reports together, how to reply to advertisement - and increasingly, how to write using electronic media. Part of teacher´s job is to give pupils that skill.

There are four writing sequences:

  • Postcard
  • Altering dictation
  • Newspaper headlines/ articles
  • Report writing

Another factor which can determine teacher´s choice of writing task is the pupils´ interests. Teacher´s decisions, though, will be based on how much language the pupils know, what their interests are, and what teacher thinks will not only be useful for them but also motivate them as well.

To sum up it is possible to say that while project work all language skills should be trained. So, speaking activities may well from one part of a much longer sequence which includes reading or listening and after the activity, study work. The teaching of reading is intimately bound up with the teaching of writing: the one provides the model for the other. Writing is a basic language skill, just as important as speaking, listening and reading. Listening is a skill and any help teachers can give pupils in performing that skill will help to be better listeners.

 

2.3. Project work as one of the most effective teaching forms in modern school.

Teachers can hardly work at the child´s level unless they know what that level is. It is important to match topics to the level, reserving complex issues for more advanced classes. Teachers should not offer very advanced students a simplified dialogue.

The traditional lessons do not give a chance or cognitive and creative development. Teachers of beginning will necessary use activities whose organization is less complex then those for more advanced learners. Teachers find it quite effective to develop all language skills for beginner pupils. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture defines the word "project" as a piece of work that needs skill, effort and careful planning, especially, over a period of time.

Project work captures three principal elements of communicative approach. They are: a concern for motivation; a concern for relevance; a concern for general educational development of the learner.

Project learning has not been redacted on the teaching methods; it is more educational philosophy, which aims are to show the way and to introduce with some possible activities achieving to a more democratic society, points Legutke. The child is naturally active, especially along social lines. Teachers just should choose the appropriate teaching method.

I think that project method is one of the most effective teaching forms. The originators of a project work have arrived at decisions about types of activities, role of teachers and learners, the kinds of the material which will be helpful, and some model of syllabus organization.

Project can consist of intensive activities which take place over a short period of time, or extended studies which may take up one or two hours a week for several weeks.

Project works gives the pupils an opportunities to bring their knowledge, feelings, experience, ideas and intelligence of their world into the school and out of it - to the area where the project work take place. Projects can include a wide range of the topics and use knowledge and experience gained from the other subjects in the curriculum.

In big classes, it is difficult for the teacher to make contact with the pupils at the back and it is difficult for the pupils to ask and receive individual attention. It may seem impossible to organize dynamic and creative teaching and learning sessions. In large classes, pair-work and group work play an important part since they maximize pupil participation.

When the teacher knows how their pupils feel about pair work and group work it is easier to decide what method should be applied and what kind of the activities to perform.

Theory stands for "Multiple intelligences", a concert introduced by the Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner.

In his Frames of Mind, he suggested that as humans we do not possess a single intelligence, but a range of intelligences (Garner 1983). He listed seven of these.

All people have all of these intelligences, he said, but in each person one (or more) of them is more pronounced. If teachers accept that different intelligences predominate in different predominate in different people, it same learning task may not be appropriate for all of pupils.

Some rules which teacher should keep in her mind in project technology during English teaching:

  • - Have pupils write their names and addresses on postcards. During the summer take some time to write the pupils a short note about your summer and to ask about their summers. Take this opportunity to remind pupils to keep reading.
  • - Create a classroom environment by developing a vision for your ideal working environment. It is easier to develop a classroom management plan if you have ideas and experiences to draw from. It will also be easier to come to work each day to a room that is functional as well as stimulating.
  • - Ask pupils to bring only their books, pencils/pens, and paper to class to maximize space. If pupils bring their backpacks, find a place away from the teaching area to place them during class. Cluttered rooms can cause pupils to trip or become frustrated. You need to rearrange the room or provide pupils with a space for their possessions.
  • - Help pupils that do not feel like they fit in and act out for peer attention and approval. Viewing short film clips of social situations will assist pupils in a discussion about appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
  • - Periodically hold classroom meetings to address issues within the classroom, explain a new procedure, or develop plans for a service project. Give pupils a way to express themselves, problem solve, and support each other.
  • - Create lessons that allow your pupils time in class to work on a new skill by providing a short period of time to work on sample problems, set up a lab, read a passage, or sew a button hole. You will be able to guide pupils as they practice the new skill. If pupils have questions, you are able to help. Use following technique: "I do" (the teacher models the skill), "we do" (the teacher and pupils practice the skill together), and "you do" (the pupils work alone on the skill).
  • - Place vocabulary words and definitions on the board or on the wall for pupils to review throughout the week. Use the words in conversation during the week. Don´t give more than five words per week. After testing the pupils at the end of the week, review throughout the year. Pupils will have a greater chance of retaining the vocabulary words.
  • - If you use small groups or if pupils are working on many class projects, find a device that will get their attention if you need to make an announcement or give additional directives. Devices may be wands, timers, bells, or whistles. Have pupils practice what they need to do when you use one of the devices.
  • - Keep the size of groups small-generally from two to five pupils. This gives each student an opportunity for interaction.
  • - Cooperative learning is more than placing pupils into groups. It is about purposefully planning a lesson that intentionally uses small groups. Cooperative learning is an effective way of building communities of learners, providing peer support, teaching social skills, and working together to solve problems or produce a product.
  • - When designing a cooperative project learning lesson, planning is the key to a successful learning experience. The reason to use cooperative project learning is to encourage everyone to work together to the best of their ability to achieve a goal. Using cooperative learning groups helps to build a more purposeful structure for pupils.
  • - Design groups based on your purpose. You want a cross section of pupils in each group. Begin to build the "all for one and one for all" belief by telling pupils that they are in this group to help each other succeed.
  • - When specifically using cooperative learning you need to assign groups of three to five pupils each with a specific role. If you have more than five it is difficult to find a specific role for each student. Each person in the group needs a task. Roles can be the leader, the recorder, the observer, the reporter, the task master, the activity director, and the process observer. Cooperative groups must have assigned roles.
  • - Foster a commitment to the group through interdependence. Each group member is dependent on the other members. Pupils will need to work together.
  • - Whenever you assign a big project or a research paper, break the project into manageable sections for the pupils. Some pupils will do this automatically; others need the direct instruction and step-by-step procedures to help them organize and manage such a major project. A few pupils will need a very detailed timeline.
  • - As soon as possible in the school year, begin to display student work. Elementary schools are alive with work that shows what pupils are learning. Middle school and high school teachers should also display appropriate projects. Ask to use the media center or cafeteria to display larger projects.
  • - Use test results to springboard ideas for improvement. Explore opportunities

to expand in other areas. Offer independent learning projects for pupils who need additional practice in specific areas

  • - Pupils love to take pictures, be in pictures, and look at pictures. Let pupils use the school camera and tell stories in pictures. Be sure to train them in the proper care and use of someone else´s property.
  • - Explore the many computer programs available for language development. Pupils benefit from a multimedia approach.
  • - Use a Proxima digital projector in the classroom. Your media center should have one that you can check out to use in your classroom. Projecting the information on the big screen is another way to present information as pupils work with the material.
  • - Instruct pupils in utilizing Power- Point for their presentations. As soon as the teacher thinks the pupils are ready they should create a PowerPoint presentation. Many pupils are capable of this skill in 4th grade.
  • - With special needs pupils, find out the latest in assistive technology. With technological breakthroughs happening every day, the latest invention may be the tool that will help pupils accelerate their learning.
  • - The Internet is a valuable resource. Use it to search for projects, information, lesson plans, strategies, and other materials that can be used in class. Utilize search engines to guide your search.
  • - Begin service projects with your pupils. Pupils need to participate in community linked service projects to foster a relationship with their community or future communities. The benefits include a spirit of working together for the common good, a sense of accomplishment, and a sense of belonging.
  • - Keep a file of special projects your class did for the year. This will help you remember the highs and the lows of the year. Review your portfolio before the next year to revise things that worked and areas that need improvement.
  • - Set time limits for tasks. It is easy to get caught up in a project and spend too much time stewing and fretting over the small details.
  • - Introduce yourself to the librarian. He or she will be a great resource for you and may be more inclined to work with you and your pupils personally if she knows you. Partner with the librarian in setting up after school book clubs for pupils.
  • - Ask the librarian to offer help sessions when pupils are working on research. Librarians will instruct pupils on the best way to search for material, both on the Internet and throughout the library.

 

•III. The practical part

The plan of the topical project work "My Body" for developing all language skills in form 7.

The aim of the practical application of the project work "My body" was to investigate the possibility to increase the pupil´s interest in learning the English language, to develop all language skills and improve knowledge of young learners.

This part of the work passed through certain stages: questionnaire to study pupil´s types of the intelligence; selection task and activities for project work "My Body"; practical implementation of the project material.

Topical project work "My Body" for developing all language skills in junior classes.

The aim of the work was to stimulate the interests in studying the language and to improve the skills and improve the skills and knowledge of pupil´s and with the help of the topical project work "My Body". To achieve the aim teacher studied methodological literature on using project work for developing different skills. Then the project work was practically implemented in junior classes. Finally, the results of the case study were analyzed.

I want to show the important and usefulness of using the topical project work "My Body" at the English lessons. It also showed that the project work is an effective method of developing all language skills of young learners. With the help of the project work the teacher realized that more pupils had arisen their interest in language English and proved their practical skills in communication through English. This study proves also that the project work elevates the effectiveness of learning English. During the project work atmosphere in the class was very positive and friendly. The learner´s attitude to doing all types of task was very positive and involved children to the learning process.

First of all it is possible to say that the children are given basic knowledge in a foreign in elementary school. Listening, reading, writing and speaking in a foreign language is a difficult art and it has to be learned starting in junior classes.

The theme of the topical project work "My Body" for developing all language skills in Form 7.

The hypothesis of the lesson is that the effective use of the project work successfully develops of all language skills of young learners.

Finally, I want to show two activities:

Project work was begun with the song "Head and shoulders". Children sang and touched the body parts mentioned in the song.

The game parts of the body.

The objectives of the work are:

  • 1. To study the methodological and psychological literature on using project works.
  • 2. To study the topical project work
  • 3. To analyze the result of the topical project work.

 

The implementation of the project work "My Body"

In order to develop all language skills according to the pupil´s types of intelligence, to motivate pupils to learn the language a set of activities and tasks was worked out.

Having studied the advantages and disadvantages of the project work and work in big classes it was decided to organize the class into groups and pairs.

The cognitive aim of the topic "My Body" was to review the knowledge about the body in English and through activities gain understanding of new information.

Table 2 reflects the summary or the activities used for developing four language skills. This material was designed for young children.

Table 2. Activities for the topic "My Body"

Description of activity

Teacher´s language

Language skill focus

1. Sing song and do the actions

Nose, head, shoulders etc.

Listening, speaking skills

2. Drawing the parts of the body

"Show me..."

"What is it?"

Speaking, writing, listening skills

3. To listen to the dialogue

Helping with difficult words

Listening and speaking skills

4. Mime-show

Introduce new words

Speaking, writing, reading, listening skills

5. Measuring your body

Giving instructions

Speaking, listening, reading, writing skills

6. English food

Giving key words "What is different about English food?"

Reading, listening, speaking skills

7. Game " Healthy food for healthy Body"

Questions about the text

Speaking, listening, writing

8. " Table manners"

Helping with new and difficult words

Reading, speaking, writing, listening skills

9. Test

Read the first task

Listening, writing, reading skills

 

Before the first lesson of the project work prepared a large chart which was attached to one of the walls of the classroom. In the chart the pupils were supposed to show their opinion after each lesson by drawing an appropriate face:

I like the activities in the lessons.

I partly like the lesson.

I did not like the activities.

The first project task was begun with the song "Head and Shoulders". Children sang and touched the body parts mentioned in the song.

The next step was work in pairs. Pupils were showed the parts of the body each other, were drawing and writing the parts of the body in their notebooks. It was done in the form of game.

Further, the teacher asked the children to listen to the dialogue and try to understand what the children were talking about. They also were supposed to discuss the dialogue, explain the phrases and words pupil did not understand.

Then the teacher planned work in pair:

  • - they mimed having a headache, earache, backache;
  • - The children tried to guess what was wrong with them by asking "Are you ill?" or " What is the matter?"

Later the children wrote the new words and expression in the notebooks. They read in pair about little John - decided whether little John was really ill, practiced the short answers.

Work in groups: the teacher used Worksheet 1 for each group to fill in, introduced new words: weight, height, width.

The teacher together with the nurse weighed the pupils and measured their height pupils in the medical room of the school.

When Worksheet 1 was completed in groups, the pupils could repeat their results to their classmates at the second project lesson.

Work in pair: What is different about English food? - Children read the text. They consolidated the vocabulary about foodlikes and dislikes; discussed on good and bad food and clarified ideas about the "Pyramid of Food".

Work in groups: in this activity was used Worksheet 3 for making group pictures "Healthy Food for Healthy Body"

Finally, the learners were offered to write "Table manners" using words: dirty, hands, mouth, do not, fork, spoon, knife, hear, etc.

 

Analysis of the Results.

When all these numerous tasks and activities were successfully performed, the teacher of the case study summarized the result of the pupils´ opinion about them.

Table 3 shows that 20 pupils out of 23 liked the activities, 3 pupils out of 23 partly liked the activities at the project lessons. It proves that activities at the project lessons were used successfully.

 

Health problem

The teacher gives out the detailed designed for three groups, which are then discussed accordingly in groups and one of the pupils protects the project. Previously teacher explains the purposes both tasks of the given projects and their urgency for the pupil. In our region heath of children is weakened ecologically by unsuccessfully conditions, and consequently - low immunity. Therefore, the given theme of the project plays a huge role in education of healthy future generation.

The teacher divides the pupils into three groups and distributes them the tasks:

I group - the interview to the doctor on a theme "What measured accepts the stats for preservation of health of children of school age?

II group - "The round table" discusses questions of preservation of health in walls of school.

III group - Develop effectual measures on preservation of the health.

T: Today at a lesson well discuss, how it is necessary too protect the health, that in the future when you are adult, it´ll be less problems with health. It is known, that health is pawned since young years. Let´s recollect proverbs and sayings connected with health. You can answer both on Kazakh and in the English languages.

And now we shall proceed to the basic part of our lesson. I group - The interview to the doctor on a theme "What measures accepts the state for preservation of health of children of school age?"

I group

P: Hi, dear doctor.

D: Good morning, guys. What disturbs you?

P: While nothing disturbs us, but we would like to set to you some questions concerning directly our health.

D: What questions interest you?

P1: Now treatment is very expensive in hospitals of our city, and we don´t earn money yet. If we shall be ill, it will be very difficult to our parents to pay our treatment. What can you tell about it?

D: For children till 15 years the service in urban hospitals is carried out free-of-charge in volume by the guaranteed state. In the Message of the President since July 2005 the treatment of the children with chronic diseases and children of the invalids of childhood will be completely free-of -charge.

P2: Is there a measles epidemic in our city? What age children are subject to this disease? How to protect from this illness?

D: This year in our city the flare by disease measles was observed, children at the age of 15 and elder more often are sick and are more senior than others. Therefore it is necessary to put an inoculation from measles on a residence, more often to air room, less often to be in places of a mass congestion of the people.

P3: Why children of school age are frequently catch cold of diseases?

D: Children are guilty in the greater degree, as carelessly put on, sometimes not according to weather. Many children not temper, therefore their immunity is weak and their organism predispose to various viruses.

P4: Is it possible in our age to begun temper on a method "Detka" of Porphyry Ivanov?

D: This method approaches to any age. But before glazing in the street it is necessary to you gradually to carry out preliminary temper, first begin glazing at home by water of temperature 36-37 degrees C.

P: What wishes can you make to the schoolchildren of our class and all pupil of our school?

D: I wish you as it is possible less often to be sick, to grow healthy, strong, clever and to become the good experts of the business in the future. The future of our Republic depends on you.

II group - "The round table" discusses questions of preservation of health in walls of school.

T: So, II group state the opinion on that how at our school keep up your health?

II group

P1: At our school there is a well equipped medical study. In a medical study nurse measure growth. Weight the schoolchildren, writes down in a magazine their data each year. There come the narrow experts, check sight, joints, backbone and hearing. If one of the child suddenly be sick or will rise temperature, ours nurse is always ready to render the first necessary help. In the study there are all necessary medicines. Thermometers, tonometr, syringes and dressing material.

P2: During one year nurse keeps us, that to us all necessary inoculations on age were made. Also during occurrence of such illnesses, as hepatitis, parotids, measles and others. The nurse provides duly vaccination of the pupils.

P3: In each class daily attendants in a study watch cleanliness and constant airing of a room, wipes a dust, waters, flowers, wipes a board. There is special schoolboy in a class, which watches personal hygiene of the pupils, checks nails, appearance and cleanliness of hands.

P4: The class chief watches bearing of the pupils, replacing their periodically from one line to another. Also she transplants children according to their growth and sight for desks. The schoolchildren together with the class chief are engaged gardening a study - transplant flowers. The parents annually make repair in a study: whitewash, draw, for its cleanness and beautiful.

P5: At school have entered 3 hours of physical culture into one week. It favorably has an effect on health of the pupils. Many children attend of various sport sections: volleyball, basketball, karate, football, navigation, dances and others. The schoolchildren with pleasure go in campaigns, Biological center, in the winter go on ski base, skate and ski.

T: It is very good. We liked your performance I see you seriously concern to a problem of preservation of the health. If all schoolchildren will think as well as you, will be sick, frequently schoolchildren, and passing lessons less. Now let´s look what measures offer us the guys from III group for preservation of the health.

III group

P: We have decided as figures, diagrams to represent, what is good, what is bad for health of children.

The 1 diagram:

Good meal: fruit, vegetable, dairy products, juices, vegetable oil, fish

Bad meal: greasy meat, pie, ice-cream, sweets, fried potatoes, sugar, chocolate

 

The 2 diagram:

Bad health:

  • 1. Smoking
  • 2. Alcoholic drinks
  • 3. Drug addiction
  • 4. Long presence in front of the TV set, computer
  • 5. To listen to loud music or personal stereo
  • 6. To read laying
  • 7. Wrong meal

Good health:

  • 1. To be engaged in sports: a) football b) navigation
  • 2. Correct meal
  • 3. Tempering
  • 4. Timetable of a day
  • 5. Correct illumination

T: So, our lesson has approached to the end, I think you have received a lot of new useful and interesting to itself and for your health. Our doctor has given you the information on that as you can is treated in urban hospitals. And thank you for your active participation at our lesson

 

"The names of continents and countries. Nationalities and languages"

Teacher gives out the detailed designs on a theme "The names of continents and countries. Nationalities and languages", as a project is a carried out at active participation of the pupils. They are offered to make the booklets, folders of abstracts about each continent and about some countries from this continent.

The pupils are divided into five groups and prepare the projects separately. Also questions beforehand are given out, on which it is necessary to find the answers and to tell about them during realization of a lesson:

  • 1. What can you tell about culture of the investigated country?
  • 2. In what country of another continent would you like to live?

 

Beforehand the text "Continents and Countries of the World" given in the textbook is studied with pupils. I think it will be very interesting to learn about it. You know some material from a rate of geography, but today we shall deepen our knowledge and we shall repeat all in English.

- Today we shall talk about continents, about the peoples and about languages of the various countries. The representatives of the different countries will tell us about their countries.

- It is good, I see you are well familiar with all continents and now let´s talk separately about each of them.

 

I group. Asia

P1: China- largest on a population and one of the largest states in the world. It is located in Central and East Asia. Territory - 9,6 million km. square. The population - 1,2 milliards the man. The capital of Peking. The state language - Chinese.

P2: India - state in the south of Asia. Territory - 3,28 mln. square km. The population over than 800 million the man. The state languages - Hindi and English. Capital - Delhi

P3: Japan - state in east Asia, is located on four large islands Hokkaido, Honshu, Sikoku, Kyushu and numerous fine islands. Territory- 372,2 thousand km. The population - 122,2 million the man.

The capital- Tokyo. Official language - Japanese.

P4: Kazakhstan - state located in Central Asia. Territory - 2, 7 million km. The population - 16 millions the man. Capital - Astana. The state language- Kazakh

P5: Turkey- state located in Asia and Europe. Territory - 779,4 thousand square km. The population - 51,4 million the man. Capital - Ankara.

The state language - Turkish.

2 group. Europe

P1: Great Britain - state in Western Europe on the British islands.

Territory - 244,1 thousand square km. The population - 59 million the man.

Capital - London. The state language - English.

P2: Greece - state in south-east Europe.

Territory - 131,99 thousand square km.

The population of - 9,9 million the man. Capital - Athens. The state language - Greek.

P3: France - state in West of Europe. Territory - 551,6 thousand square km.

The population - 55,7 millions the man.

Capital - Paris. The state languages - French.

P4: Spain - state in the south-west of Europe. Territory - 507,6 thousand square km. The population - 39 million the man. Capital - Madrid. The state language - Spanish.

3 group America

P1: USA - state in Northern America.

Territory - 9,373 thousand square km.

The population 246,8 million the man.

Capital - Washington. The state language- English.

P2: Canada - state in northern part of Northern America. Territory - 10 million km. The population - 25,9 million the man.

Capital - Ottawa. The state languages - English, French.

P3: Brazil - the largest state in Southern America. Territory - 8512 thousand km. The population - 138,5 million the man.

Capital - Brasilia. The state language - Portuguese.

P4: Chile - state in a south-west to Southern America. Territory - 756,9 thousand km. The population - 12,3 million the man.

Capital - Santiago.

The state language- Spanish.

4 group Africa

P1: Algeria - state in northwest of Africa. Territory - 2,4 million square km. The population - 26 million the man. Capital - Algeria. The state languages - Arabian, Berber.

P2: Egypt - state in north east of Africa. Territory - 1002 thousand square km. The population - 53 million

the man. Capital - Cairo.

The state language - Arabian.

P3: Tunis - state in Northern Africa. Territory - 164 thousand square km.

The population - 7,5 million the man.

Capital - city Tunis.

The state language - Arabian.

5 group Australia

P1: Australia - state borrowing the Australian continent. Territory - 7,7 million square km. The population -16,3 million the man.

Capital - Sydney. The state language - English.

- It is very good. Now you know all general items of information about some countries of world in English. Now you can tell about the writers, music, literature, cinema, theatre and another. We are ready to listen to the representatives of the different countries.

I group. Asia

Music in China.

Musical culture of China - one of the most ancient in the world. Its sources ascend to primitive songs and dances, there is enough highly advanced already in second thousand B.C.

In the texts 11-6 centuries B.C word "ue" (music) expressed wide concept me lading poetry, dances, and fine art. Music from an antiquity was connected to the various parties of the life and activity of the man. It is peculiar to a national song of China accord, repeating rhythms, the manner of execution, differs, throat coloring of a sound. In connection with general rise of culture in the period Tan the level of music education has risen, first were created actor´s professional groups, including "A Pear´s garden", becoming executive by school, which has united set of the musicians.

2 group. Europe

Oscar Wilde (1856-1900)

Oscar Wilde was born in 1856 in Ireland. He was the son of the well- known Irish doctor and scientist. His mother was a very educated woman, a poetess. Who published many poems and other works, among them "Legend of Ireland".

Oscar Wilde received a very good education. Began his education at Trinity college in Dublin and graduated from Oxford in 1878.

He wrote poems, fairy tales, and plays. He died in Paris and was buried there.

3 group America

The history of America.

In 1492 admiral Christopher Columbus discovered "A New World". The native inhabitants of that land called the island "Guanahani", but Christopher Columbus renamed it San Salvador. For 50 years after it Europeans explored the New World actively. Some hoped to find trade route to Chine, others hoped to find the Paradise Rivers with gold and the Fountain of Youth. Near the end of the 16th century interest in the New World began changing from exploration to settlement. New interest in settlement literature in 1620 more than hundred English men and women settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts. They were not the settlers who came to see a New World; they had battled with English authorities over the right to practice their religion - Puritanism.

4 group Africa

Cinema in Egypt.

The operators removed from 1897 foreign directors and separate short chronically, and with 1917 and game films. In 1925 the first film-studio "Misr" in Cairo is constructed. From 1927 film - manufactures has got systematic character. Basic film- production of the 1930th years - musical films created at participation of the known singers and the composers. Per 40 years film-pictures for the first time has appeared which wakened patriotically of feeling, called for struggle with imperialists. Since the 50th years the subjects, new to the Egyptians art develops: the films devoted to social and cultural transformations are put. 80-90 art pictures annually are let out. There are more than 300 cinemas in Egypt now.

5 group Australia

Theatres in Australia

The radical population of Australia did not know the theatre. The first theatrical representations concern to 80th years in 18th century. At 30-40 years in Sydney Hobard, Melbourne, Adelaide have begun to be created constantly working theaters. The theatres put products of the Australian authors. European and American classics, aspiring to copy foreign statement.

In the country there is national institute of drama art. The quantity of the actors is significant come in theatres from amateur, is exacter than small theatres widely distributed in suburbs and in a province. In Sydney, Newcastle and Melbourne half-professional theatres interestingly work, where are put first of all national and classical dramatic art.

- It is very good. You have learned a lot of news about culture of the different countries and all of you spoke in English and as you have already noticed, the English language is the state language in many countries of the world. And would you like to live on the other continent?

- Give your own opinion

Listen to the opinions of the representatives of the countries that they will tell.

- On it our lesson has approached to the end. A thank for active participation.

I group. Asia

P: I would like to live in Northern America. To get acquainted with a history of occurrence and development of this country more close. Also it will be desirable to visit the USA, to do a bit of travelling on states and to speak to the people of different nationalities. Now I know that the history of development of this country is very interesting also I would like to talk it to the radical Americans.

 

2 group. Europe

P: Australia such interesting and unusual continent, which from different directions is washed by different oceans. The surprising nature seems that there to me. Most of all I´m admired with the animal world of this country.

3 group America

In the Asian countries very interesting culture. The peoples of these countries on-especial bring up of children, their behavior behind a table, with the adults, in the streets in urban transport force to think, that the Asians the most brought up and affable people in the world.

4 group Africa

Europe very much differs from our countries. The Europeans very much accurate people, at them high manners and thin tastes. I also like beautiful streets and houses in European countries. At them the style and huge quality of theatres and cinema is highly put. I would be very glad to visit France and Germany.

5 group Australia

I like the countries of East Asia very much. I admire with traditions and customs of these countries. I wanted to live in this country.

 

T: On it our lesson has approached to the end. Thank for active participation. All exposes the appropriate estimations. At home retell the text "Continents and Countries of the World".

 

Conclusion

English language - is very universal language nowadays. It is the international language of communication. To will be arranged on work in many campaigns the knowledge Kazakh, Russian and now English language is required. For this reason I have decided to write my course work in a subject a method of teaching to the English language.

Theme of my course work - Using of project technology in English teaching at the lessons. Now there are a lot of new technologies of training, but I have taken just this, because, it is a little investigated and yet not for all is known. This method will learn children itself to consult with problems and to find an exit from difficult situations, and between that to learn English language. They don´t suspect how they learn a lot of new. To find the decision of that problem they visit libraries, read the additional literature, and work in above the translations of new materials. There are few hours given to foreign language in high school, but in such a way pupils learn much more educational program.

I can note that not all pupils with the large interest concern to this method of teaching with introduction of Union National Testing, majority of the pupils of elder forms try in addition to be engaged only in those subjects, on which they will hand over the tests. And the project method of teaching requires additional preparation in after-hour time.

During a choice of a problem it is necessary to pay the large attention to meaning of this problem, it should play an important role in life of the pupils, only so you can force children to find to it the correct decision. During preparation the schoolboys frequently approached to a lesson to me with different questions: "Help to us translate this sentence", "Where can we find suitable material?" and others.

Certainly, I have opened much new for myself in working above the project method, new in research, of training. I have learnt the very convenient approach to the schoolboys, because in after-hour time they behave more open.

At the end it would be desirable to note, that this method is useful as well as younger classes, and in the grown-ups. The schoolboys from younger classes with the large enthusiasm concern to the decision of problems and this method is closer to them, than for the schoolboys of the senior classes. I liked this method very much and further I shall use it more often.

Using literature:

 

1. Аракин В.Д «Методика преподавания английского языка». М.1958

3. Бастауыш мектеп №10, 11, 122005

4. Берман И.Ш «Методика обучение английскому языку». М. 1995

5. Иностранный язык в школе №3 - 1991

6. Иностранный язык в школе №3 - 1991

7. Иностранный язык в школе №3 - 1991

8. Иностранный язык в школе №3 - 1991

9. Минаева Л.М «Что способствует лучшему пониманию английского языка».

10. Рубинштейн С.Л. Основы общей психологии. - М, 1946, Б.47

11. Пассов Е.И «Урок иностранного языка в средней школе»

12. Рахманова И.В «Настольная книга преподавателя иностранного языка». Минск. 1997

13. Работа над стихами на уроках английского языка.

14. Рогова Г.В «English in two years».

15. Рогова Г.В «Методика обучение английскому языку на начальном этапе в средней школе» М.1993

16. Рогова Г.В. «Методика обучения английскому языку». М.1998

17. David Cross "Practical Handbook of English teaching" , 1992 Prentice Hall International (UK) Limited

18. Kathleen Brenny and Kandace Martin "1000 Best New Teacher Survival Secrets", Naperville, Illinois, 2005

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