IV Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2012


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The distribution structure of persons by gender and age is necessary to study the demographic and socio-economic processes. Choice of the topic is due to the necessity of research and analysis of socio-economic processes, since this area of life in modern Russia has many problem sand shortcomings.

Population structure is the distribution of people, forming the population into groups according to the values of a particular trait.

Age and gender structure of population is the distribution of population by age group separately for men and women. Age structure is one of the most important structures. Age structure is described by the groups and relative indicators. Most often it is based on study of distinguished age groups annually and every five-year period, but depending on the purpose of analysis, there are other groups.

An annual group is a group people of same age or same year of birth. Distribution of people on one-year age group offers the best opportunity to analyze the status and changes in age structure. However, data on age structure in the annual group is exposed to distorting the phenomenon of accumulation of age. Many people do not give much importance to the accuracy of the mention of his or her age, and in the past, many did not know his or her exact age, so pointing it at the census approximately, with rounding.

The analysis of the age and gender composition also uses a graphical method. In the latter most often used the age-gender pyramid is a graphical image of the distribution of population by age and gender. Usually, a pyramid is built on a one-year or five-year age groups. Age and gender pyramid is a diagram in which the number (or proportion of the population) of people of all ages represents horizontal bar of a certain size. Ordinate cause age groups, on the horizontal axis are the number or proportion of the population of corresponding age. On the vertical axis scale of the band lay in two directions: left to men, right for women. The features and age-gender pyramid, ledges, or deformation of its segments can be judged on the impact of the processes of fertility and mortality on the age structure of the population for many decades, as well as future trends in population reproduction and the possible prospects of changing its size. The modern age and gender pyramid of the population in Russia was formed under the influence of two groups of factors: the evolutionary changes as a consequence of regular decrease mortality and fertility during the demographic transition; and the swing of impacts associated with economic and social upheavals, which was so rich in history of Russia in the twentieth century. If such effects do not swing it, the contour of the pyramid would change gradually, reflecting the typical period of demographic transition, population aging: the base of the pyramid would become more narrow; its upper part would be increasingly larger, the ratio of male and female parts of the pyramid would not be undergoing large changes, and its edges would remain smooth.

It is true that in Russia, unfortunately, exists a very high male "super mortality" in the working ages. Nevertheless, the interpretation of the huge "female superiority" as a consequence of political and economic reforms 90 years has nothing to do with reality. Over the last decade, the gender ratio in the population of Russia was neither worse nor better.

The main reason for Russia´s "female superiority" is World War II and the associated huge loss of male population. Naturally, since the war is in the past, the gender ratio is equalized.

Thus, improvement of gender ratio in older age is a clear indication that the influence of social upheaval and, above all, the wars in this relation loses its meaning. In the middle ages as an adverse relationship - no doubt a consequence of the excess mortality of men in peacetime. However, it is this ratio over the past ten years has not changed or changed only slightly (a little worse in rural areas), which once again points to the compensatory nature of the dynamics of mortality in this period.

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