In addition it has an active effect on the value of all demographics. Thus, in a young age structured population (one with a relatively high percentage of young people), if other conditions are equal, the population will experience a high level of marriage and fertility and low mortality, since young people are less likely to get sick and even less likely to die. In turn, demographic processes have a strong influence on the age structure of population. Thus, fertility decline has among its consequences the so-called demographic aging of the population, where the percentage of older groups grows.
Thus, the age structure of population is linked closely to all demographic processes. One important consequence of this interaction is that the age structure accumulates in itself and keeps stock of demographic inertia, the potential for population growth, which implies that population movement (positive or negative charge) going for a long time after the driving forces of this movement has already exhausted or changed its direction is reversed. Therefore, the influence of age structure is always taken into account when analyzing the dynamics of demographic processes and using special techniques that we will continue to consider, singled out from the combined effect of many factors that affect performance.
Age structure is described by the groups and relative indicators. To this we must add that the age structure is generally considered in conjunction with the gender structure, so normally it comes to gender and age structure of population. Most often distinguished age groups annuals or five years, but depending on the purpose of analysis possible and the other groups. However, data on age structure in the annual group exposed to distorting the phenomenon of accumulation of age. In population censuses, which are the main source of data on the age structure, age is written, as we said in Chapter 2, the words of the respondents, without attracting any documents. Many people do not attach much importance to the accuracy of the mention of his age, and in the past, many people did not know his exact age, so pointing it at the census approximately, with rounding. In the countries of Christian culture rounding age usually do (and to a lesser extent but still does) on the numbers ending in 0 and 5. In other cultures, figures could be 8, 12, etc.
Accumulation of age distorts the data on the age structure so that the number of ages ending in 0 and 5, is much higher than the number of adjacent age groups. Due to the accumulation of age in the age structure formed protrusions and depressions, which in reality does not exist (or, in any case, they may be quite different in size). As a result of demographic indicators, calculated on the basis of incorrect data on the age structure is also distorted to give the wrong idea about the phenomena they are intended to reflect.
Therefore, demographers, first, fight the accumulation of age at the time of collecting information on population age structure. As mentioned in the previous chapter, to reduce the accumulation of age contributed to the transition to the direction of respondents´ date of birth instead of non-appearing years. In contrast, the number of non-appearing years, which is constantly changing (rounded age is like a way to "pause" for a while), birth date remains unchanged and it is easier to remember (although it has some people who manage to "round up"). Second, demographers working with census data on the age structure of the one-year grouping and the calculations based on these various demographic indicators, we have to exert much effort to the various, sometimes quite sophisticated methods to align the artificial bumps and hollows on the age structure, while being careful keep it as a real configuration.
Accumulation of age is inversely related to the overall culture of the people. Therefore, in the past, say in our country in the first half of this century, the accumulation of age was strongly expressed in the female population than male rural population - more than in urban areas. In the U.S., while at the same time, the accumulation of age was shown to a greater extent in non-white population than the white, etc.
The growth of literacy and educational level as an industrial and social development had among their positive changes and the gradual disappearance of, or in any case, reducing to an insignificant minimum age accumulation. Therefore, in this tutorial are not the methods for measuring it and eliminating them. However, in the case when dealing with an annual population age structure, or with annual age-specific (by the way, is not necessarily the demographic, with all indicators of social phenomena and processes, differentiated by age of respondents), with accumulation of age should be considered in if necessary - to be able to fix it.
Year age group more commonly used in demography, and beyond. In this case, one group of people together five contiguous years of age (or another: five one-year age groups). Five-year group gives a more compact representation of the population age structure, and at the same time the quinquennial age groups, the accumulation is largely automatically smoothed, and in economically developed countries where the accumulation of age now is low, it is a five-year age group actually becomes imperceptible.
The standard age grouping adopted in all demographic documents, and UN estimates, is as follows: 0 years, 1 - 4 years (or sometimes annual group 1, 2, 3, 4 years), then in the range of 5 to 85 years followed by five year age groups 5-9, 10-14, ... 80-84 years, and completes this series of so-called open interval of 85 years and older.
The standard age groupings adopted by demographers UN should adhere to mandatory not only to demographers, but also to all social scientists, so that all the studies that use data disaggregated by age of people (and it almost any social studies), could be combined each.
Urban population includes persons residing in urban settlements and rural population covers residents of rural areas. Urban settlements are defined as legally established populated areas such as cities, towns and urban-type settlements. All other settlements are considered as rural ones.
Age structure plays an important role in demographic processes, affecting the value of all demographics. Using the knowledge of the age structure of population in a given period of time, you can build fairly reasonable assumptions about future trends in fertility and mortality rates, other demographic processes of reproduction in the general population. Knowing these features, you can also assess the likelihood of certain problems in the economic and social spheres, to predict the demand for certain goods or services, the election results in a particular region, etc.
Age structure has a regular influence on the natural movement of population, which is expressed in fertility, mortality and marriage. The higher proportion of young ages in the population, the higher total fertility rates and marriage rates, calculated for the entire population of the territory. The higher proportion of older ages, the higher the value of total mortality. Age becomes an important feature of any demographic event that determines the frequency (intensity) of their occurrence. Knowing the characteristics of the age structure of population at any given time, we can build enough due to provisions for future trends in fertility and mortality and other demographic processes, as well as reproduction of the population as a whole, assess the likelihood of certain problems in the economic and social spheres, to forecast demand for the or other goods or services.